Citywide Gains over 3 Years in Reading Proficiency Relative to State Performance

This figure shows whether cities made school-level gains in proficiency over the three most recent years of available data. The gains or losses are represented as the percentage of a standard deviation. We standardized school proficiency rates by state and year to try to account for differences in state proficiency standards and year-to-year shifts in state assessments or standards. To show gains, a city’s schools had to improve relative to its state’s performance. We also adjusted the results to account for the different mix of students served by each school.

NOTE: Cities with asterisks had gains (or losses) that were statistically significantly different from zero (p<0.05).