In June 2014, the Center on Reinventing Public Education and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute brought together a group of esteemed scholars and policy experts to consider what’s needed in the next generation of accountability systems. Many participants played key roles in the creation of existing systems, and none hesitated to identify their shortcomings. Over two days, these experts focused on fundamental beliefs to help surface design principles for these next-generation systems, as well as the key tensions and challenges that must be addressed for them to become a reality. Disagreements arose, but on one point there was no disagreement—the time to fix systems is now, and the opportunity to do so may not be here forever. This report captures the conversation and outlines common principles to guide the redesign of school accountability systems that can help states deliver on the promise of Common Core. The report is intended prompt a productive dialogue to help policymakers and others begin this crucial work.