When compared with their urban and suburban counterparts, rural schools and districts face unique challenges. These can include limited economies of scale, difficult teacher labor markets, and inadequate access to time- and money-saving technologies. While rural schools and districts educate millions of American students, they often do so with less support and attention from policymakers, the public, and educational innovators than schools in more heavily populated areas. Our research looks at the obstacles rural schools and districts face when preparing students for the 21st-century economy and is helping to put these issues on the national agenda. We identify opportunities for innovation in how rural schools deliver services, recruit teachers, use technology, and serve all student populations.